artist Mulalem and his unique ordered


On the Amharic version, it gave Menelik II the right to ask Italy for help in times of need, but it did not say anything about Ethiopia becoming a territory of Italy. When Menelik II discovered the misunderstanding, he immediately wrote to Britain's Queen Victoria, to the ruler of Germany, and to the president of France insisting that Ethiopia was still an independent nation. In 1893, Menelik II denounced the treaty and by 1895 Ethiopia and Italy were at war. On March 1896 Menelik's troops crushed the Italian army at Ada, Ethiopia. Later, Italy did recognize Ethiopia as an independent nation.


After Menelik defeated the Italians at the Battle of Ada, he expanded Ethiopia by conquest. Turmoil led to Menelik death, which brought his daughter, Empress Audit, to power in 1917. Safari Manner was regent and heir apparent. Upon Empress Audit  death in 1930, Safari Manner was crowned Hail Selassie I as he became the 225th successor of the Solomon dynasty. The name Hail Selassie means 'the Power of the Trinity' in Amharic, and his official titles also included 'King of Kings' and the  of Judah.' In 1931, Hail Selassie decreed the nation's first written constitution. Through his efforts, Ethiopia became a member of the international organization called the League of Nations (now United Nations) in 1932.



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